Campylobacter species are among the top four global causes of diarrhoeal diseases, according to the World Health Organisation. Campylobacter infections can be fatal among young children and the elderly. For each reported case of campylobacteriosis, 30 cases are projected to be unreported.
Coliform bacteria have been used as indicators of unsanitary conditions in food and beverage production for more than a century. Enumeration of the bacteria can help monitor the performance of food and beverage processing, equipment cleaning and sanitation, and quality of ingredients.
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria recognised as an important group in the food industry for monitoring hygiene and sanitation. Their detection and enumeration can indicate improper processing and poor sanitation in the processing environment.
Salmonella stands out among pathogenic organisms for its high prevalence. The illness it causes, salmonellosis, is the most commonly reported cause of foodborne illness today. It can occur following the consumption of many foods including raw or undercooked poultry products and low-moisture food.
Control of Listeria species, including Listeria monocytogenes (L. mono), is vital in any food processing environment. While L. mono is not a leading cause of foodborne illness, it is however, among the leading causes of death from foodborne illness.